quote:Three moderate solar flares erupted from the sun
Three moderately strong solar flares measuring M4.4, M5.3 and M2.3 erupted from Active Region 2644 (beta) on April 1 and 2, 2017. The M4.4 event started at 21:35, peaked at 21:48 and ended at 22:05 UTC. It was the first M-class solar flare since November 29, 2016 and the strongest since M5.5 on July 23, 2016.
A Type IV Radio Emission was registered at 21:50 UTC. Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the Sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar radiation storms. However, the plasma cloud appears to be headed to the northwest and away from our planet.
Another M-class solar flare erupted from Region 2644 on April 2. This one started at 07:50, peaked at 08:02 UTC as M5.3 and ended at 08:13 UTC.
A Type IV Radio Emission was registered beginning at 08:00 UTC, indicating a strong coronal mass ejection and solar radiation storm. A Type II Radio Emission (estimated velocity 628 km/s) was registered at 08:07 UTC. Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the Sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.
The location of this region does not favor Earth-directed CMEs.
The third M-class solar flare started at 12:52, peaked at 13:00 as M2.3 and ended at 13:11 UTC. The source was Region 2644.
A 10cm Radio Burst (peak flux 110 sfu) beginning at 12:56 and lasting 1 minute was associated with this event. A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.
quote:7 M-class solar flares from geoeffective region
Geoeffective Active Region 2673 produced 7 M-class and at least 8 C-class solar flares on September 4, 2017. The strongest was M5.5 at 20:33 UTC associated with an asymmetric full halo Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). This region has the potential to produce more strong to major eruptions on the Sun, including X-class flares. Its location currently favors Earth-directed CMEs.
This impressive region grew vigorously over the past 48 hours, suddenly becoming one of the largest regions of the year. It now has 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic configuration and is capable of producing strong to major eruptions on the Sun. Since the region will remain geoeffective today and in the days ahead, Earth-directed CMEs are likely.
The first solar flare of the day was produced at 05:49 UTC measuring M1.2. It was followed by M1.5 at 15:30 UTC, M1.0 at 18:22 UTC, M1.7 (associated with a Type IV Radio Emission) at 19:37 UTC, M1.5 at 20:02 UTC, M5.5 (associated with a Type II Radio Emission and 10cm Radio Burst) at 20:33 UTC, and M2.1 at 22:14 UTC.
The strongest event from this region, thus far, is M5.5 solar flare which started at 20:28, peaked at 20:33 and ended at 20:37 UTC. This flare was associated with a Type II radio sweep with an estimated velocity of 1 472 km/s and a 10cm Radio Burst lasting 52 minutes with peak flux of 1 600 sfu.
Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the Sun and typically indicate a CME was produced. A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.
quote:Major X9.3 flare erupts from active region
A major X-class solar flare erupted from geoeffective Active Region 2673 peaking as X9.3 at 12:02 UTC on September 6, 2017. The event started at 11:53, peaked at 12:02 and ended at 12:10 UTC. This is the second X-class solar flare of the day. It comes just hours after a long-duration X2.2 at 09:33 UTC. It is also the strongest solar flare of the current solar cycle (Solar Cycle 24).
Radio signatures suggest a strong Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) was produced during this event.
The event was associated with a Type IV and Type II (estimated velocity 1969 km/s). Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event. Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.
In addition, this impressive event was associated with a 10cm Radio Burst lasting 3 minutes with peak flux of 12000 sfu.
Today's X9.3 is the strongest solar flare of Solar Cycle 24. Although X-class solar flares were expected (25% chance) since Region 2673 rapidly grew into a monster region and attained 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic configuration, such powerful flare comes as a huge surprise, as our star is heading toward Solar Minimum. The previous record for the strongest flare of the cycle was X6.9 of August 9, 2011.
The cycle so far had 47 X-class flares, including today's X2.2 and X9.3.
Over die X9.3 uitbarstingquote:
quote:M8.1 solar flare produced
A strong solar flare measuring M8.1 at its peak erupted from Active Region 2673 at 07:49 UTC on September 8, 2017. The event started at 07:40 and ended at 07:58 UTC.
This is the third M-class solar flare of the day and the 18th since September 4, when the first M-class solar flare erupted from this region. Over those 4 days, we have also registered 3 major solar flares - X2.2, X9.3 and X1.3 and several Earth-directed CMEs. Some of them have already hit our planet, causing G4 - Severe geomagnetic storming.
There were no radio signatures associated with today's M8.1 flare suggesting a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) was produced.
Ik ken dit, een dynamische link met de bron die steeds veranderd, schaam je niet.quote:
twitter:halocme twitterde op maandag 06-05-2019 om 08:36:44 This is amazing! AR 12740, which is an old cycle region and I honestly have not expected much, has produced a C9.9 (almost M-class) flare. The flare was very short duration, but note the spectacular large-scale coronal propagating front in the difference movie! https://t.co/LVwMsVdrEq reageer retweet
quote:C9.9 solar flare erupts from AR 2740, the strongest since October 2017
A moderately strong solar flare measuring C9.9 erupted from AR 2740 (Beta-Delta) at 05:10 UTC on May 6, 2019. The event started at 05:04 UTC and ended at 05:12 UTC. This is the strongest solar flare since M1.0 at 23:28 UTC on October 20, 2017.
A Type II Radio Emission with an estimated velocity of 740 km/s was associated with the event, suggesting a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) was produced by the flare event.
The current position of this region does not favor Earth-directed flares.
This is the strongest solar flare in 2018 and 2019. The second strongest since January 1, 2018 was C8.1 at 13:47 UTC on February 7, 2018 and the third strongest C5.3 at 03:12 UTC on March 21, 2019.
Solar Cycle 24 produced a total of 49 X-class flares. The strongest was X9.3 at 12:02 UTC on September 6, 2017, followed by X8.2 at 16:06 UTC on September 10, 2017, X6.9 at 08:05 UTC on August 9, 2011, X5.4 at 00:24 UTC on March 7, 2012 and X4.9 at 00:49 UTC on February 25, 2014.
quote:NASA's probe soaring near sun reveals surprises about solar wind
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Troves of new data from a NASA probe’s close encounters with the sun are giving scientists unique insight about the solar wind and space weather more generally as the spacecraft zooms through the outermost part of the star’s atmosphere.
Researchers on Wednesday described the first published findings from the Parker Solar Probe, a spacecraft launched in 2018 to journey closer to the sun than any other human-made object. The findings, offering fresh details about how the sun spawns space weather, are reshaping astronomers’ understanding of violent solar wind that can hamper satellites and electronics on Earth.
“We were certainly hoping we’d see new phenomena and new processes when we got close to the sun - and we certainly did,” Nicola Fox, director of the U.S. space agency’s heliophysics division, told reporters. “Some of the information that we found pretty much confirmed what we expected, but some of it is totally unexpected.”
Earth is roughly 93 million miles from the sun. The probe ventured as close as 15 million miles (24 million km) to the sun to gather the data used in the studies published in the journal Nature. The probe eventually will travel within about 4 million miles (6 million km) from the sun’s surface, seven times closer than any previous spacecraft.
The probe has endured extreme heat while flying through the outermost part of the sun’s atmosphere, called the solar corona, that gives rise to solar wind - the hot, energized, charged particles that stream outward from the Sun and fill the solar system.
Oscillations in the speed of these charged particles beaming outward from the solar corona have previously been thought to dissipate gradually, much like the waves seen after plucking a guitar string fading from the middle.
One of the probe’s “really big surprises,” according to one of the researchers, was the detection of sudden, abrupt spikes in the speed of the solar wind that were so violent that the magnetic field flips itself around, a phenomenon called “switchbacks.”
“We’re finding these discrete, powerful waves that wash over the spacecraft, kind of like rogue waves in an ocean,” said Justin Kasper, a principal investigator whose team at the University of Michigan built a solar wind-sensing instrument on the Parker probe. “They carry a tremendous amount of energy.”
“This will dramatically change our theories for how the corona and solar wind are being heated,” Kasper added.
quote:Cosmic radiation around reaching record high levels
Cosmic radiation around us reaching record high levels as the Sun sets Space Age record for most days without spots
Cosmic radiation has hit the 5-year high this month and is approaching record high values as the Sun sets a new Space Age record for spotlessness -- days without sunspots. The Sun’s magnetic field weakens during solar minimums, allowing deep space cosmic radiation to flood the Solar System.
Cosmic radiation is increasing since 2014 when Solar Cycle 24 peaked and the Sun headed toward very deep Solar Minimum we are experiencing right now. SC24 reached its maximum in April 2014 with 23 months smoothed sunspot number of only 81.8 -- one of the weakest solar cycles on record.
In 2019, the Sun has been without spots for 270 days or 77%, as of December 16, which is the highest number of spotless days on the Sun since the Space Age began in 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union.
The current Solar Minimum, the same as the previous one (2008/2009), is very deep -- referred to as 'century-class' minimum. The only year with more spotless days was 1913 with 311.
The previous Space Age record for the year with most spotless days was set in 2008 with 168
"As 2019 comes to a close, neutron monitors at Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory in Oulu, Finland are approaching those same levels. Indeed, a new record could be just weeks or months away," Dr. Tony Phillips of the SpaceWeather.com notes.
"Neutron monitors in Oulu are getting results similar to ours," Phillips said, referring to Earth to Sky Calculus cosmic ray measurements. "Oulu data show that cosmic rays have been increasing for the past 5 years and, moreover, are within percentage points of the Space Age record."
"We use X-ray and gamma-ray detectors sensitive to energies in the range 10 keV to 20 MeV," Phillips said.
"This type of radiation, which you can also find in medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners, has increased more than 20% in the stratosphere."
quote:Study finds correlation between solar activity and large earthquakes worldwide
A new study published in the Nature Scientific Reports on July 13 suggests that powerful eruptions on the Sun can trigger large earthquakes on Earth. In the paper, the authors analyzed 20 years of proton density and velocity data, as recorded by the SOHO satellite, and the worldwide seismicity in the corresponding period, as reported by the ISC-GEM catalogue. They found a clear correlation between proton density and the occurrence of large earthquakes (M > 5.6), with a time shift of one day.
The Sun may seem relatively docile, but it is constantly bombarding the solar system with energy and particles in the form of the solar wind.
Sometimes, eruptions on the Sun's surface cause coronal mass ejections that hurtle through the solar system at extremely fast rates.
The new study suggests that particles from eruptions like this may be responsible for triggering groups of powerful earthquakes.
"Large earthquakes all around the world are not evenly distributed-- there is some correlation among them," said co-author Giuseppe De Natale, research director at the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy.
"We have tested the hypothesis that solar activity can influence the worldwide [occurrence of earthquakes]."
Scientists noted a pattern in some massive earthquakes around the planet-- they tend to occur in groups, not randomly. This indicates that there may be some global phenomenon triggering these worldwide tremors.
To address this, researchers searched through 20 years of data on both earthquakes and solar activity-- specifically from NASA-ESA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite-- seeking any probable correlations.
SOHO, located about 1.45 million km (900 000 miles) from our planet, monitors the Sun, which helps scientists track how much solar material strikes the Earth.
By comparing the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue-- a historical record of powerful tremors-- to SOHO data, the researchers noticed more strong earthquakes happened when the number and velocities of incoming solar protons increased.
When protons from the Sun peaked, there was also a spike in earthquakes above M5.6 for the next 24 hours.
"This statistical test of the hypothesis is very significant," said De Natale. "The probability that it's just by chance that we observe this, is very, very low-- less than 1 in 100 000."
After noticing there was a correlation between solar proton flux and strong earthquakes, the researchers went on to propose a mechanism called the reverse piezoelectric effect.
Compressing quartz rock, something common in the Earth's crust, can produce electrical pulse through a process called the piezoelectric effect. The researchers think that such small pulses could destabilize faults that are nearing rupture, triggering earthquakes. Signals from electromagnetic evens, such as earthquake lightning and radio waves, have been recorded occurring alongside quakes in the past.
Some scientists think these events are caused by the quakes themselves, but other studies have spotted strong electromagnetic anomalies before huge earthquakes and not after, so the exact nature of the correlation of earthquakes and electromagnetic fields is still debated.
Meanwhile, this new explanation suggests that electromagnetic anomalies are not the result of earthquakes, but cause them instead. As positively charged protons from the Sun hit the Earth's magnetic bubble, they generate electromagnetic currents that propagate across the world. Pulses created by these currents go on to deform quartz in the crust, ultimately triggering earthquakes.
Large earthquakes occurring worldwide have long been recognized to be non Poisson distributed, so involving some large scale correlation mechanism, which could be internal or external to the Earth. Till now, no statistically significant correlation of the global seismicity with one of the possible mechanisms has been demonstrated yet. In this paper, we analyze 20 years of proton density and velocity data, as recorded by the SOHO satellite, and the worldwide seismicity in the corresponding period, as reported by the ISC-GEM catalogue. We found clear correlation between proton density and the occurrence of large earthquakes (M > 5.6), with a time shift of one day. The significance of such correlation is very high, with probability to be wrong lower than 10–5. The correlation increases with the magnitude threshold of the seismic catalogue. A tentative model explaining such a correlation is also proposed, in terms of the reverse piezoelectric effect induced by the applied electric field related to the proton density. This result opens new perspectives in seismological interpretations, as well as in earthquake forecast.