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  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 12:22:36 #1
300435 Eyjafjallajoekull
Broertje van Katlaah
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De protesten tegen een uitleveringsverdrag met China worden langzaamaan steeds heviger. Zat net een livestream te kijken en agenten slaan demonstranten nu hardhandig neer met stokken en traangas.

https://www.nu.nl/buitenl(...)n-demonstranten.html

quote:
Politie Hongkong zet traangas en waterkanonnen in tegen demonstrantenPolitie Hongkong zet traangas en waterkanonnen in tegen demonstranten
12 juni 2019 11:35
Laatste update: 11 minuten geleden
10

De politie in Hongkong heeft woensdag meermaals traangas en waterkanonnen ingezet tegen demonstranten die protesteren tegen de invoering van een nieuwe uitleveringswet.

Zondag gingen al tienduizenden demonstranten in de Zuid-Aziatische bestuurlijke regio de straat op om te demonstreren. Volgens de nieuwe wet mogen verdachten aan het vasteland van China worden uitgeleverd om daar berecht te worden.

Eerdere protesten verliepen relatief rustig, maar de situatie werd woensdag chaotischer. Zo probeerden demonstranten bij overheidsgebouwen naar binnen te dringen.

Ook gooiden enkele demonstranten flessen naar de politie. De politie probeerde hierop de groepen demonstranten uiteen te drijven met onder meer traangas en waterkanonnen.

Sommige demonstranten bouwden ook barricades om het verkeer in het hart van het Aziatische financiële centrum te blokkeren. Bijna vijfduizend manschappen van de oproerpolitie zijn aanwezig.
Live topic op Reddit:

https://www.reddit.com/live/133sixros7tu5/

van de livestream:
https://twitter.com/i/status/1138741228625731585
https://twitter.com/i/status/1138751533091180544
https://twitter.com/i/status/1138743982005952512
Opgeblazen gevoel of winderigheid? Zo opgelost met Rennie!
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 12:28:47 #2
425882 Lothiriel
Altijd optimistisch!
pi_187385943
Ik vraag me soms af of de inwoners van Hong Kong geen spijt hebben van het aansluiten bij China? Ik weet dat GB in 1997 volgens het verdrag afstand moest doen van HK maar dat betekent niet dat ze geen zelbeschikkingsrecht hebben en als onafhankelijke staat hadden kunnen doorgaan.
Political correctness is tyranny with manners
- Charlton Heston
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 12:36:25 #3
300435 Eyjafjallajoekull
Broertje van Katlaah
pi_187386055
quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 12:28 schreef Lothiriel het volgende:
Ik vraag me soms af of de inwoners van Hong Kong geen spijt hebben van het aansluiten bij China? Ik weet dat GB in 1997 volgens het verdrag afstand moest doen van HK maar dat betekent niet dat ze geen zelbeschikkingsrecht hebben en als onafhankelijke staat hadden kunnen doorgaan.
Nee, volgens mij zou Hong Kong nog lang zelfstandig kunnen blijven, maar China versneld zaken. Zoals het aanstellen van door hun goedgekeurde politici, mensen oppakken die vervolgens verdwijnen (zoals die lui van een boekwinkel met kritische boeken over de Communistische partij), en nu dus deze wet.

In mijn ogen dus wel terecht dat men demonstreert. China doet alles veel sneller dan afgesproken.
Opgeblazen gevoel of winderigheid? Zo opgelost met Rennie!
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quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 12:28 schreef Lothiriel het volgende:
Ik vraag me soms af of de inwoners van Hong Kong geen spijt hebben van het aansluiten bij China? Ik weet dat GB in 1997 volgens het verdrag afstand moest doen van HK maar dat betekent niet dat ze geen zelbeschikkingsrecht hebben en als onafhankelijke staat hadden kunnen doorgaan.
denk niet dat een onafhankelijke staat ooit een optie was. hongkong zoals wij het kennen was ten dode opgeschreven toen de engelsen hun handen terugtrokken. het was een kwestie van tijd dat hongkong de tirannie van de communistische partij zou moeten omarmen.

wiki

quote:
Overdracht aan China

De grootste opvolger van het keizerrijk, de Volksrepubliek China, gaf te kennen de in 1898 verleende pacht niet te willen verlengen. Op 19 december 1984 werd een overeenkomst gesloten tussen het Verenigd Koninkrijk en China, die voorzag in het overdragen van het volledige gebied van Hongkong aan China. De laatste gouverneur van de kolonie, Chris Patten, voerde een zekere democratisering in. Op 1 juli 1997 droeg het Verenigd Koninkrijk Hongkong over aan China. Hongkong werd hierbij een Speciale Bestuurlijke Regio, waarin gedurende 50 jaar niet dezelfde wetten gelden als in het communistische China. Dit wordt het idee van "één land, twee systemen" genoemd.


[ Bericht 29% gewijzigd door Slayage op 12-06-2019 12:49:05 ]
Ik heb Hem niet uit vrees voor de hel noch uit liefde voor het paradijs gediend, want dan zou ik als de slechte huurling zijn geweest; ik heb hem veeleer gediend in liefde tot Hem en in verlangen naar Hem.
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 12:43:06 #5
78680 Nielsch
zie signature
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[ Bericht 100% gewijzigd door Nielsch op 12-06-2019 12:46:37 ]
zie ondertitel
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quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 12:28 schreef Lothiriel het volgende:
Ik vraag me soms af of de inwoners van Hong Kong geen spijt hebben van het aansluiten bij China? Ik weet dat GB in 1997 volgens het verdrag afstand moest doen van HK maar dat betekent niet dat ze geen zelbeschikkingsrecht hebben en als onafhankelijke staat hadden kunnen doorgaan.
Het is niet dat we een keuze hadden.
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quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 12:55 schreef Legatus het volgende:

[..]

Het is niet dat we een keuze hadden.
woon je in hong kong?
Ik heb Hem niet uit vrees voor de hel noch uit liefde voor het paradijs gediend, want dan zou ik als de slechte huurling zijn geweest; ik heb hem veeleer gediend in liefde tot Hem en in verlangen naar Hem.
pi_187386515
.

[ Bericht 50% gewijzigd door Legatus op 13-06-2019 08:26:28 ]
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 13:04:41 #9
300435 Eyjafjallajoekull
Broertje van Katlaah
pi_187386555
D82tbigWsAEiaHT.jpg

Auto's worden de weg opgesleept om blokkades te vormen.
Opgeblazen gevoel of winderigheid? Zo opgelost met Rennie!
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 13:05:20 #10
300435 Eyjafjallajoekull
Broertje van Katlaah
pi_187386564
Agenten slaan demonstrant in elkaar (licht NSFW)

https://twitter.com/i/status/1138758850717392896
Opgeblazen gevoel of winderigheid? Zo opgelost met Rennie!
pi_187387035
Zeer triest om te zien dat China de vrijheden van de samenleving in Hong Kong langzaam maar zeker afbreken. Ik vraag me af wanneer het ook zal gaan gebeuren bij Taiwan, wat ze gelukkig alleen nog maar diplomatiek kunnen pesten. Je hoort hier schrikbarend weinig over in het Westen.
  Culinair Fotograaf 2018 woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 13:40:46 #12
440166 Sigaartje
Met mij kun je altijd lachen
pi_187387044
Toen Hong Kong aan China werd teruggegeven, wist ik gelijk al, dit kan nooit goed gaan.
Winnaar hoofdprijs beste kook-foto-topics
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 15:01:32 #14
131800 Tarado
capô de fusca
pi_187388362
Tonnytony1017 twitterde op woensdag 12-06-2019 om 11:03:02 Fired... no matter what bullet it was... It is NOT acceptable... #HongKong #HongKongProtest https://t.co/B865XVK4Ar reageer retweet
  woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 16:06:28 #15
205706 john2406
gratis is en te koop
pi_187389756
quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 13:40 schreef Sigaartje het volgende:
Toen Hong Kong aan China werd teruggegeven, wist ik gelijk al, dit kan nooit goed gaan.
En toen Duitsland de DDR terug kreeg wat dacht je toen?
  Culinair Fotograaf 2018 woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 16:07:01 #16
440166 Sigaartje
Met mij kun je altijd lachen
pi_187389764
quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 16:06 schreef john2406 het volgende:

[..]

En toen Duitsland de DDR terug kreeg wat dacht je toen?
BRD was geen China.
Winnaar hoofdprijs beste kook-foto-topics
  Culinair Fotograaf 2018 woensdag 12 juni 2019 @ 16:09:47 #17
440166 Sigaartje
Met mij kun je altijd lachen
pi_187389815
Die Chinezen zijn nog erger dan Arabieren.
Nederlanders zijn huichelaars. Omdat ze lekker handel kunnen bedrijven met China.
Maar China is gewoon een kutland, die mensen onderdrukt en hun meningsuiting ontneemt.
Niemand ziet dat.

Maar de westerse wereld valt wel Irak aan en Iran, omdat daar belangen zitten.
Zimbabwe is altijd aan zijn lot overgeloten, valt niks te halen.

Als ik het heel grof wil zeggen: China is het Rusland van vroeger.
Winnaar hoofdprijs beste kook-foto-topics
  zondag 16 juni 2019 @ 11:48:41 #18
385501 Nikonlover
KLB aandachtshoer 2013
  zondag 16 juni 2019 @ 12:27:48 #19
355869 Jellereppe
ZOA-Amfora!FAN
pi_187452099
Hier een professionele bron waar jullie informatie over het land kunnen opzoeken. Aangezien het jullie zoveel doet is misschien verstandig om je wat in te verdiepen voordat die bekken de volgende keer open gaan voor een nieuw oordeel. Hetzelfde geldt voor Iran, India, Indonesië. Ik heb mijn ouders horen oordelen over Nederland en Nederlanders zonder dat ze iets van wisten jaren geleden en negativiteit rijk en werd toen al schijtziek van. Ik zie hetzelfde terug op dit forum. Tfoe.

quote:
The China Quarterly

the_china%20quarterly.jpgStatement-on-content-in-the-CQY.jpg

The China Quarterly is the leading scholarly journal in its field, covering all aspects of contemporary China including Taiwan. Its interdisciplinary approach covers a range of subjects including anthropology/sociology, literature and the arts, business/economics, geography, history, international affairs, law, and politics. Edited to rigorous standards by scholars of the highest repute, the journal publishes high-quality, authoritative research, keeping readers up to date with events in China. International in scholarship, The China Quarterly provides readers with historical perspectives, in-depth analyses, and a deeper understanding of China and Chinese culture. In addition to major articles and research reports, each issue contains a comprehensive Book Review section.
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/china-quarterly

[ Bericht 5% gewijzigd door Jellereppe op 16-06-2019 13:22:49 ]
  zondag 16 juni 2019 @ 13:02:15 #20
355869 Jellereppe
ZOA-Amfora!FAN
pi_187452619
quote:
0s.gif Op woensdag 12 juni 2019 12:55 schreef Legatus het volgende:

[..]

Het is niet dat we een keuze hadden.
Absoluut niet. Deng Xiaoping dreigde Margaret Thatcher met militair ingrijpen als de kolonie niet overgedragen werd aan China. Dat is de enige taal die Germaanse West-Europese elite lijken te begrijpen. Militaire basis en kroonkolonie 10.000 km van het moederland. Smeerlappen. Alsof het de normaalste zaak van de wereld is. Mao Zedong had de Britse kroonkolonie Hongkong al makkelijk kunnen inlijven en de Britten daar kunnen wegvegen maar hij heeft om redenen die mij bekend zijn het nog langer laten voortbestaan. Mao stierf dan wel in 1976 maar hij was al in 1969/1970 niet helemaal meer bij, functioneerde toen al niet meer. De laatste jaren van de Mao-era heeft de Gang of Four de macht gehad in China.

[ Bericht 5% gewijzigd door Jellereppe op 17-06-2019 07:47:06 ]
  zondag 16 juni 2019 @ 13:08:36 #21
131800 Tarado
capô de fusca
pi_187452701
quote:
0s.gif Op zondag 16 juni 2019 13:02 schreef Jellereppe het volgende:

[..]

Absoluut niet. Deng Xiaoping dreigde Margaret Thatcher met militair ingrijpen als de kolonie niet overgedragen werd aan China. Dat is de enige taal die Germaanse West-Europese elite lijken te begrijpen. Smeerlappen. Militaire basis 10.000 km van het moederland. Helemaal loko.
was helemaal niet nodig, hij hoefde alleen maar met de waterkraan te dreigen, die dichtdraaien that is
  zondag 16 juni 2019 @ 13:27:12 #22
355869 Jellereppe
ZOA-Amfora!FAN
pi_187452975
quote:
0s.gif Op zondag 16 juni 2019 13:08 schreef Tarado het volgende:

[..]

was helemaal niet nodig, hij hoefde alleen maar met de waterkraan te dreigen, die dichtdraaien that is
Historische achtergrond in een ander jasje
Alsof de Chinezen hun leger gaan parkeren in Rotterdam om de Noordzee te patrouileren en als het overgedragen wordt na 150 jaar gaan ze even snel een nieuw politieke systeem invoeren gebaseerd op Chinese leest in de stad, natuurlijk nadat ze het volk eerst goed verkracht hebben met opium om winst te kunnen maken en Chinese stijl onderwijs om ze Chinese waarden op te dringen, om ze meer naar hun smaak te vormen.

En als Rotterdam dan wordt overgedragen aan Nederland dan wel even graag de Chinese normen en waarden respecteren voor 50 jaar na de overdracht die in Rotterdam zijn ingevoerd door de spleetogen. Omgekeerd nu. Kijken hoe die gare westerse media dan over rapporteert. Tfoe. Nul respect. Naar Hilversum om verhaal te halen bij die westerse propaganda-artiesten. 'Journalisme'.

Actieve en gerichte Westerse media- en informatie-oorlog, PR en zeer noodzakelijke her-organisatie en verbetering van Chinese media en PR noodzakelijk
Ik geef ook de Chinezen schuld hoor. De regering wordt haast exclusief bevolkt door engineers en die zijn slecht in PR. Die engineers zijn het resultaat van hervormingen van Deng Xiaoping in de jaren 80. Deng verwijderde alle radicale rode ideologen uit de partij, die alleen oog hadden voor ideologische puurheid, en ging expertise in de vorm van engineers op leiderschapsposities plaatsen, hervorming richting Neo-Autoritarisme / Soft-Autoritarisme, en weg met radicale rode ideologie. En dat is niet veranderd sinds de jaren 80.

De Westerse massa-media, denktanks, politici, ngo's maken het land dag en nacht zwart maar zij hebben enorme middelen maar PR slecht, totaal niet aanwezig. Waar ben je dan in hemelsnaam mee bezig? Bloomberg verspreidde bijvoorbeeld leugens over Chinese spionage-chips op moederborden. Excuses nul. Ze moeten echt ook in 'zachte sciences' (Psychologie, Marketing, PR) gaan investeren en niet alleen harde sciences (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry). Op het eerste kijken ze zwaar neer, op het tweede geilen ze snoeihard. Kijk naar Rusland. Veel minder financiële middelen en toch slagen ze in om een ander geluid te laten horen met RT. Helaas, mensen gaan niet betalen voor professionele artikelen geschreven door China Quarterly van het Goddelijke Cambridge Universiteit. We zijn liever lui en bedienen ons van rotzooi en eurocentrische vuilnis als CNN en NOS.

NWS / Chinezen bespioneren via mini chips op moederborden

Rebelse enclave waar Britse koloniale invloed nog stevig aanwezig is zelfs 23 jaar na terugkeer aan de moedertiet
Enclave waar schoonmaak moet worden gehouden maar hebben handen vol aan veel andere zaken in Beijing. Ik zou als Beijing eerst starten met de Amerikaanse, Britse en andere westerse NGO's die deze protesten gretig financieren en van organisatie-advies voorzien uit Hongkong bonjouren. En ook andere zaken waar buitenlands geld in zit zoals Hongkong media etc. moet goed worden doorgelicht. Daarna kan men verder kijken.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/china-quarterly

gewapende-man-zendtijd-eist-opgepakt-in-nos-pand.jpg

Ik ben overigens echt blij met Russia Today (RT). Het is maar een redelijk succesvolle outlet buiten de NATO-kranten maar alle beetjes helpen tegen de uitzaaiingen van de westerse media. Wie weet dient het als voorbeeld zodat anderen volgen. Als rolmodel voor toekomstige niet-Germaanse gedomineerde media.

[ Bericht 5% gewijzigd door Jellereppe op 17-06-2019 11:35:09 ]
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Ik heb Hem niet uit vrees voor de hel noch uit liefde voor het paradijs gediend, want dan zou ik als de slechte huurling zijn geweest; ik heb hem veeleer gediend in liefde tot Hem en in verlangen naar Hem.
  maandag 17 juni 2019 @ 00:54:18 #24
355869 Jellereppe
ZOA-Amfora!FAN
pi_187463357
Heerlijk niet Eurocentrische post. Genot. Bron is Quora.

quote:
Who were the most powerful countries in the world at different points in history?

Note: There’s no pleasing everyone when it comes to a topic like this, so I won’t bother apologizing (if you disagree, feel free to comment below).

9,000–3,000 BC: The first cities emerge in the Middle-East. Uruk is the greatest and most organized of these settlements. Verdict: Sumerian civilization.

3,000 BC: Ancient Egypt emerges. The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Verdict: Ancient Egypt.

2,900–2,500 BC: Ancient Egypt maintains its position as the world’s preeminent power.

2,500–2,300 BC: At this point, with dozens of settlements established on the Indian Subcontinent, the Indus Valley Civilization is considered to be at the height of its power despite the fact that the world’s most populated settlements were still in Egypt or Sumer then. Verdict: Indus Valley Civilization.

2,260–2,120 BC: The world’s first empire emerges along the River Euphrates and Tigris, and its power is unprecedented. Verdict: Akkadian Empire.

main-qimg-260e30cb48482f955e2ed0252f5586ad.webp

2,100 BC: With the collapse of the Akkadian Empire, and a series of conquests which see a decrease in the territories held by Egypt, India is once again the world’s preeminent power. Verdict: Indus Valley Civilization.

2,000 BC: The Kassites who emerge along Euphrates River with the most populated cities, and also its largest territories. Verdict: Kassite Dynasty.

1900 BC: Indus Valley Civilization begins to decline, Egypt whilst small continues to maintain the world’s largest cities, the Kassite Dynasty collapses and the Xia maintain a steady hold on power. The Minoans also hold steady. Decision is difficult to make. Verdict: Minoan civilization

1800 BC: Egypt returns to power in terms of territories held, and continues to hold onto the world’s largest cities. Verdict: Ancient Egypt.

1700 BC: Egypt splits into two halves, with Xois controlling the north. Babylon emerges as the world’s largest city meanwhile, with a population of 60,000. Verdict: Babylonia.

1600 BC: Egypt maintains the world’s most populous cities, but is split into three parts now, with Hyksos maintaining control of the north, whilst the south is under Nubian rule. Hittites and Elamites (Iranians) emerge in full vigour. Minoan civilization continues to prosper and reaches its peak. Xia declines. Verdict: Minoan civilization.

1500 BC: The Chinese emerge. However Ancient Egypt also recovers at this point in time, and continues to have the world’s largest cities. Both Shang China and Ancient Egypt have similar territories (size). Verdict: Ancient Egypt or Shang China.

main-qimg-cf512112604df2e8d1c9443d2672a3d0

1400 BC: Minoan civilization is replaced by the Mycenaeans, who quickly rise to power. China and Egypt’s New Kingdom likewise also maintain stable rules over their respective domains at this time. Difficult decision. Verdict: Ancient Egypt, Mycenaean civilization, and Shang China.

1,300–1,200 BC: The Mycenaeans are at the peak of their power at this time. Yinxu meanwhile emerges as the most populous city in the world (120,000 inhabitants) thus supplanting Thebes, Egypt. Verdict: Mycenaean civilization (mostly) and Shang China (second biggest power of the time).

1,100 BC: The Assyrians emerge as a force to be reckoned with. Shang declines and so do the Mycenaeans. Meanwhile Egypt has regained its place as the nation with the world’s most populous cities. It is also a shadow of its former self however. Verdict: Assyrian civilization.

1,000 BC: Egypt continues to decline, the Assyrians continue to prosper, but China is the biggest winner with overthrowing of the corrupt Shang, and its replacement with the powerful Zhou Kingdom. At this point, China has the world’s biggest cities and largest domain. Verdict: Zhou China.

900 BC: China continues to thrive under Zhou rule. Haojing emerges as world’s most populated city with 125,000 inhabitants. Assyrians are gaining in strength, but at this point in time are overshadowed by the Chinese. Verdict: Zhou China.

800 BC: By now, the “Indo-Aryans” of India have the world’s largest domain, but the most populated cities still belong to China. Assyria meanwhile has become an empire at this point in time, and is extremely influential, monopolizing power in the Middle-East. The Zhou meanwhile is declining due to a series of bad rulers. Verdict: Assyrian Empire.

700 BC: The Etruscans emerge as a force in the Italian Peninsular, but are completely overshadowed by the Assyrians who are now at the peak of their power and influence. By stark contrast, Zhou China has been decentralized and is broken up into many smaller polities, each with a de facto ruler. Verdict: Assyrian Empire.

600 BC: Babylon and Luoyi each have 200,000 inhabitants. Carthaginians, Lydians, Medes all emerge as powerful nations - none of which are to be underestimated. However the Medes are at the height of their power under King Phraotes. Verdict: Median Empire.

500–400 BC: The Achaemenid Empire is founded by Cyrus the Great. It is the world’s first “Hyperpower” and spans across three continents with an an area of 5.5 million km^2. Under the succeeding reigns of the “King of Kings”, Persia becomes the first empire to invent and propel both monotheism (disputed) in addition to a system of human rights. At this point, its power is both unprecedented and unrivalled by anyone anywhere. Verdict: Iranian Achaemenid Empire.

main-qimg-671c21b1d8538b828802954a7b75ef7f

330 BC: In a mere matter of years, Alexander the Great conquers the entirety of the Achaemenid Empire, adding these conquests to his territories in Macedonia. The new found polity is the largest and richest in the world. However, it should be noted that Carthage was the world’s most populated city then (500,000 inhabitants). Even so, its influence and power was nothing next to Macedonia’s. Verdict: Macedonian Empire.

250 BC: With a population of 50 million inhabitants in addition to a land area of 5 million km^2, the Mauryan Empire emerges as the world’s strongest and largest nation in the world during the mid-3rd century BC. Having defeated Carthage recently, the Roman Republic was also growing in strength at the time. Similarly, the Seleucids were also a force to be trifled with. China meanwhile was divided still at the time (though that was quickly changing). Verdict: Indian Mauryan Empire.

200 BC: After 550 years of disunity, all of China is finally unified under the totalitarian but strong, efficient and centralized Qin Dynsty. The Qin Dynasty is quickly replaced by the Chinese Han however, who continues to build up and reinforce the prosperity of the newly unified Chinese nation. With 400,000 inhabitants, China’s Chang’an emerges as the world’s most populous city. Mauryan India meanwhile was declining, and whilst the Seleucid Empire was in the midst of a revival, its power relative to Han was not comparable. Verdict: Chinese Han Dynasty.

100 BC: The Roman Republic declines, whilst the Seleucids are being conquered by a newly emergent power: the Parthian Empire. Even so, Parthia is no match for Han China - in any respect - who by this point in time were at the heights of their power under the infamous and brutal Emperor Wu. Chang’an is still the largest city in the world (disputed), and China maintains a monopoly on trade along the Silk Road, albeit Parthia has somewhat of a large “market share” too. Only the Xiongnu Empire - a Turkic polity - at the time could challenge Chinese power, but then even so only militarily. Verdict: Chinese Han Dynasty.

1 AD: The Han Dynasty whilst still the most populous nation at this time, was now a shadow of its former shelf by the turn of the new millennium. The Roman Empire reigns supreme and unchallenged in Europe meanwhile, and emerges as the most dominant force in the West. Parthia to that extent, is ultimately no match for Rome despite the military disaster which was the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC) several decades prior. Verdict: Roman Empire.

100: The Roman Empire by this point in time, nears the peak of its power, and the “Pax Romana” becomes a thing. Rome emerges as not only the largest city in the world at the time, but also the first settlement to ever surpass 1 million inhabitants (disputed). Figures vary, but at the height of its power the Empire was estimated to have 75 million people (25% of the world), a peak land area of 5 million km^2 and an economy which controlled 30% of the world’s wealth. Whilst China also made a huge come back at this time, peaking with an area of 6.5 million km^2, a populace of 60 million and an economic share of 25%, it is ultimately no match for a Rome at its zenith. Verdict: Roman Empire.

main-qimg-5b58e8603f1a1885875b8cd5b044ec1d.webp

200: All major powers of Eurasia are in decline at this time with the exception of the Kushan Empire. However, its power is still no match for the Pax Romana, as Rome’s decline is not as fast as neither Parthia’s nor Han Dynasty’s. And to that extent, it is still in a somewhat healthy shape, and still has the world’s most populated city, and now also the world’s largest and richest empire. Verdict: Roman Empire.

300: Exacerbated by the disaster that was the “Crisis of the Third Century”, Roman power was now in rapid decline by the dawn of the 4th century. A newly reunified China under the Jin Dynasty, is not that much better off at this stage either. Taking advantage of Roman and Parthian decline, the Sassanian Shahdom comes to power in Persia and emerges as the world’s greatest country. Verdict: Iranian Sassanian Empire.

400: The newly ascendant Gupta Dynasty is at the peak of its power with a land area of 3.5 million km^2, and an economic share relative to the world at 30%. The legacy of the Guptas saw the introduction of “0” to the world during their reign (disputed), and precipitated in an era known as the “Golden Age of India”, in which the Subcontinent emerged as the most prosperous region on Earth. Whilst Rome was still the most populated city in the world by 400, it was by this time a mere shadow of its former self. The Sassanians meanwhile were then in between their golden eras and were no match for the Guptas. Verdict: Indian Gupta Dynsty.

500: By the start of the 6th century, the Sassanid Empire was enjoying a second Golden Era of prosperity, which would ultimately last well into the next century. The Guptas meanwhile were declining, and would ultimately collapse five decades hence. The Roman Empire on the other hand, saw the final fall of Rome to Odoacer in 476, leaving only its Eastern (and more prosperous) half alive. Even so, the East was still holding firm by this time, and therefore no small pushover for their Persian nemesis. Both were roughly equal it would seem. Verdict: Iranian Sassanian Shahdom and Eastern Roman Empire.

600: The rise of Islam on the Arabian Peninsular coincides with the decline of the Sassanian, who by then had become exhausted from decades of fighting the Romans. The Gokturks, a powerful nomadic confederation of Turks, arises in Northern Asia meanwhile with the world’s largest empire, and though China by now had reunified under the Sui, were ultimately no match in military terms for said steppe empire. The Eastern Roman Empire in contrast to their Persian nemesis, remains strong after the Justinian attempts to reclaim the former Western Empire. Decision difficult to ascertain. Verdict (in order): Gokturks, Eastern Roman Empire, Chinese Sui Dynasty and Iranian Sassanian Shahdom.

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700: The ascension of the Tang Empire into power, precipitates in the “Golden Age of China”. Under Tang rule, China may have accounted for up to 40% of the world’s economy. At its peak, Chang’an was host to 2 million inhabitants (disputed). Its closest competitor at the time meanwhile was the Umayyad Caliphate, which monopolized power in Western Eurasia whilst China reigned supreme in the East. In the West, Umayyad rule likewise precipitated in the “Golden Age of Islam”, which amongst other things included the maintenance of Greek and Roman treatises on Medicine. The two empires were roughly equal in many ways. Verdict: Chinese Tang Dynasty and Arab-Islamic Umayyad Caliphate.

800: Whilst China still had the largest city in the world by the 9th century, it was in terminal decline. The Abbasids which replaced the Umayyads on the other hand ruled such that the Golden Age of Islam was allowed to continue. Whilst smaller than its predecessor, the Caliphate maintained a similarly large empire with a land area of 13 million km^2. The Byzantines by this time, whilst smaller than they were a century prior had stabilized somewhat (albeit just), but were nowhere near as powerful as they once were. Whilst influential in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was insignificant to say the least, when compared to the Tang or Abbasids. Verdict: Arab-Islamic Abbasid Caliphate.

900: All three major powers of the world are in decline at this point in time. However, the Abbasids are declining at the slowest rate. And in any case, by now they also have the largest city in the world - Baghdad with a population of 900,000 inhabitants. The Holy Roman Empire is still no match for the Abbasids meanwhile. Sistan arrives on scene but is still not as powerful as the Caliphate. Kievan Rus emerges and is large, but again, size does not automatically equate to power (though it often helps). Verdict: Arab-Islamic Abbasid Caliphate.

1000–1200: The Song Empire is consistently considered - with near unanimity - by scholars everywhere to be the world’s most powerful empire of the 11th-13th centuries. And whilst there are instances where other powers come close (keyword: close) to overshadowing it, none - the likes of which include but are not limited to the Eastern Roman Empire, the Seljuks, the Liao Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty, the Cholas, Fatimid Caliphate, Ayyubid Sultanate and Ghaznavid Empire - are ultimately able to do so. The Song hosted the world’s largest cities, it produced more steel at its heights than all of Europe in 1700, had 120 million people (disputed), minted 6 billion coins per year, reaped 64.2 billion kg of grain per year, invented paper money, the compass, gunpowder, restaurants, the joint-stock corporation, multi-stage rockets, accounted for up to 40% of the world’s economy, and had a unified tax system in addition to public schools, public healthcare and graveyards for the homeless. Verdict: Chinese Song Dynasty.

1300: The Mongols created the world’s largest contiguous empire in human history, and in 1300 were at the heights of their power having conquered a territory which stretched from the East China Sea, all the way to Poland and Ukraine - an domain which was 24 million km^2 in area. Its might was unmatched in 1300, and whilst the Mongols - similar to Alexander’s empire - eventually crumbled due to infighting not so long thereafter, whilst it lasted proved to be a net good for human progress. The Mongols tolerated trade and religious freedom - and this led to a flourishing in en masse trans-continental trade between East and West for the first time in centuries. Ideas similarly travelled from one end of Eurasia to the other in this way. Verdict: Mongol Empire.

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1400: At the beginning of the 15th century, the Eastern Roman Empire was on its last legs, whilst the Mongols were now in irreversible decline. The Timurids emerged meanwhile, replacing the former Il Khan in Persia whilst the Mongol Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the native Ming Dynasty. Both empires were not only similar in size, but were also vastly wealthy and headed by cruel but competent leaders - Timur in the West, and Hongwu in the East. In saying that though, at this point in time China is still likely richer and more powerful than its western counterpart. The Timurid Empire had a population of 49 million in 1400, as opposed to Ming which had 65 million. The former’s capital, Samarkand had merely 150,000, a farcry from Jinling (Nanjing)’s 1 million inhabitants. Verdict: Chinese Ming Dynasty.

1450: After the death of Timur, the Timurid Empire begun to slowly fall apart such, that by the mid-15th century it was already declining. Similarly, whilst the Ming Empire started off strong, having sent a series of famous voyages around the world from 1405–33, after the death of Emperor Yongle, China likewise also began to infamously stagnate as a whole despite remaining the richest country in the world. The Eastern Roman Empire meanwhile, finally collapsed in 1453 after centuries of decline, and the Ottomans emerged in its place. Poland-Lithuania and Denmark maintain large empires, but the Delhi Sultanate and Vijayanagara India were also notably wealthy. Portugal starting in 1415, had meanwhile begun to expand overseas. All in all, a difficult call. Verdict (in order): Chinese Ming Dynasty, Indian Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagara, Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire and the Poland-Lithuanian Union.

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1500: In general, the rankings should be similar as China and India were still the richest and most populous nations in the world. The Ottomans were stronger than they were 50 years prior territorially speaking, but their population was not as impressive at merely 11 million inhabitants (France for comparison had 15). Portugal and Spain on the other hand - and especially Portugal - had recently had their territorial disputes settled with the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), thereby paving the way for rapid colonization and conquest. Otherwise, there was generally little change which would go so far as to affect the 1450 balance of powers. Verdict: Same as 1450 (see previous verdict).

1550: By 1550, a number of significant changes had occurred. The Safavid Empire was formed for one, the Ottoman Empire had grown rapidly to include an area of 3.2 million km^2, whilst Spain and Portugal were making rapid gains in the New World. Similarly, Poland-Lithuania has expanded its reach in that time, whilst the Danish Union had broken up, with Sweden emerging from its ashes. Tsardom of Russia had emerged. China and the Indian kingdoms remain wealthy and populous, but the former is now in even further decline than it was previously. However, its overly large population more than makes up for its disadvantages. Militarily, China was vastly inferior to both the European powers as well as the Ottomans. And this has to be included in the verdict. Ditto India. Verdict (in order): Ottoman Empire, Portuguese Empire <=> Spanish Empire, Chinese Ming Dynasty, Mughal Dynasty and Poland-Lithuania.

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1600: Ottomans continue to gain strength. The Tsardom of Russia grows in size immensely. Ming China declines yet even more. Mughals rise, and nears its zenith. Spain and Portugal owing to a succession crisis, unite to form the Iberian Union. Having recently declared their independence, the Dutch Republic arrives on the global stage also. The Iberian Union is important, because it combines the strength and influence of two global empires into one. The resulting empire as a consequence is immensely rich, and lacks little in influence and power. However it was also true that the British recently defeated the Spanish Armada. Again, an ultimately difficult choice, however the sheer population and wealth of India, combined with the fact that they were then at their heights, is somewhat convincing. Verdict (in order): Mughal Dynasty, Ottoman Empire, Iberian Union, Chinese Ming Dynasty, Holy Roman Empire, Poland-Lithuania and Kingdom of France.

1650: By this time, the “Dutch Golden Age” is in full swing. Ottomans continue to rise, Ming China collapses and is replaced by the Qing, leading to the death of 25 million. Mughals continue to stay prosperous well into the 1600s, while the Iberian Union ultimately dissolves when Portugal essentially wins back its independence from Spain. Russian meanwhile makes unprecedented gains in terms of territory. England and France on the other hand, have recently arrived in the New World and are quickly creating colonies in North America. It will be some time before either overtake the Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese however. The largest city is now Constantinople with a population of 750,000. Again, this is a difficult choice since the European powers are all so well balanced. Verdict (in order): Ottoman Empire, Spanish Empire, Dutch Empire, Portuguese Empire, Mughal Dynasty, Russia and Poland-Lithuania.

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1700: Under the reign of Louis XIV, the Kingdom of France emerges as Europe’s most powerful nation. The Ottoman Empire is also at its peak (at least with regards to territory), with a land area of 5.2 million km^2. China under the wise rule of the Kangxi Emperor meanwhile, had also rebounded and then possessed the world’s most populated cities (disputed), total population is 210 million. Portugal meanwhile declines in relative strength despite additions to its territory. Spain similarly follows suit and is now somewhat subordinate to France. England like France had made headways into the New World, and is quickly emerging as a crucial player in the race for world domination. The Dutch Golden Age has meanwhile ended by this point in time, with the Chinese taking back Taiwan recently. The Mughals are now also in decline. Verdict (in order): Ottoman Empire, Chinese Qing Dynasty, France, Mughals, England, Russia and the Dutch Republic.

1750: On the eve of the Seven Years War, France remains the most powerful European country. Russia has emerged as an empire, and is bolstered greatly by the revolutionary reforms of Peter the Great, which modernizes the lands of the Tsar. The Qing and Ottoman Empires remains strong, the former especially despite its technological stagnation due to the wise reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Austria emerges as a powerful player. Poland-Lithuania in rapid decline. England begins to rival France but is not as powerful yet (arguably). The European Enlightenment is in full swing, France benefits most and introduces the ideas of Rousseau, Montesquieu and Voltaire to the world. Verdict (in order): France, Britain, Chinese Qing Dynasty, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Austria and the Dutch Republic.

1800: The Ottoman Empire by this stage is on the eve of decline. France is likely still the most powerful country in Europe at this time especially since Napoleon Bonaparte came to power the year prior. Russia expands its territories to Alaska, the British do likewise to the Indian Subcontinent, Australia and Canada. Spain and Portugal have an unprecedented amount of territory but remain mere shadows of their former selves. Britain is the biggest winner from the Seven Years War, acquiring territories from both France and Spain. In Northern India, the Marathas emerge as a powerful force and the second most populated nation on Earth. China reigns supreme with the world’s largest cities, largest economy (35% share) and largest population at 300 million inhabitants. Verdict (in order): France, Britain, Chinese Qing Dynasty, Russia, Austria, Marathas and the Ottoman Empire.

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1850: Post Manifest Destiny, the newly formed United States of America is able to acquire a large amount of territory in a short amount of time. With Napoleon’s defeat, Britain becomes the most powerful country in Europe and therefore the world. A number of new countries in Central and South America are formed at the expense of Spain and Portugal. The Ottomans decline further. All of Australia India and Canada have been colonized by the British. The Dutch increase their presence in the East Indies. The First Opium War cripples the Middle Kingdom, finally vanquishing all internal thoughts of Chinese superiority in addition to sending an indirect message to all Asian countries in the region, chief amongst which was Japan that the world had changed. Britain has largest city in the world at 2.3 million people. Verdict (in order): British Empire, Russian Empire, France, Austria, Ottoman Empire, Chinese Qing Dynasty and Spain.

1900: Meiji Restoration invigorates Japan, which becomes the only nation outside of Europe and North America to industrialize. The United States emerges victorious against Spain and takes the Philippines for itself. Britain mostly loses Canada, but gains a huge section of Africa. Since 1881, the Scramble for Africa has been ongoing with France, Belgium, Portugal and Spain making inroads to varying degrees. All of South Asia in addition to Myanmar is now under British control. France colonizes Eastern Indochina, and the Dutch completely subjugates the East Indies. Japan is the biggest surprise, having defeated Qing China (1895) - its traditional master - much to the surprise and horror of the world. Ottoman Empire is quickly declining, given the derogatory title “Sick Man of Europe”, China is similarly named “Sick Man of Asia”. Germany unifies in 1871, and rapidly rises prompting British fears. Tide has turned completely. Verdict (in order): British Empire, German Empire, United States of America, French Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire, and the Japanese Empire.

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1950: With the end of the Second World War, the United States of America (USA) and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerge as the world’s two most powerful countries. The British Empire meanwhile declines. By 1950, both had become armed with nuclear weapons. The United States economy in 1950 was estimated by one economist to hold no less than 50% of the world’s wealth. Both maintained formidable militaries, both had numerous amounts of natural resources, both wielded unprecedented influence and neither was willing to back down in the race for supremacy. Even so, the United States had a larger economy despite having a smaller amount of land and people. Its people by the 1950s were the world’s most prosperous and it maintained the world’s largest city at the time - New York (12.5 million inhabitants). Whilst both nations were powerful, most would agree that the United States was stronger. Verdict (in order): the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

2000: With the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the United States of America emerges from the Cold War as the world’s sole superpower. A British journalist, Peregrine Worsthorne has since then come up with the term “Hyperpower” in an effort to describe the unchallenged might of Pax Americana in light of Soviet and by extension Communist collpase. Indeed by 2000, there were few countries which could rival the United States either economically, culturally, technologically or most importantly of all, militarily - even if they had combined forces. The United States was thus indisputably the world’s most powerful nation in 2000. Verdict: the United States of America.

2019: Today America is still the world’s most powerful country. Its military budget is such, that it outspends the next 13 countries in the world combined. Per top educational institutes, America is home to most. Ditto the Fortune 500. Hollywood remains unchallenged similarly with millions from around the world eagerly awaiting the next US produced movie. Its pop culture is the world’s pop culture, and its trends are the world’s trends. Apple and the “Golden Arch” are universally recognized furthermore. For all its flaws as such, the US will continue to be the world’s most influential nation for the foreseeable future. Verdict: the United States of America.


[ Bericht 0% gewijzigd door Jellereppe op 18-06-2019 19:31:49 ]
pi_187481895
quote:
0s.gif Op maandag 17 juni 2019 00:54 schreef Jellereppe het volgende:
Heerlijk niet Eurocentrische post. Genot. Bron is Quora.
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