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1s.gif Op woensdag 5 april 2017 07:13 schreef Basp1 het volgende:


Waarom nu opeens de afgelopen 10 jaar als je het dan toch over cherrypicken hebt? Dat er een kleine relatieve opleving ten opzichte van het totaal in zat omdat het 5 jarig ijs bijna verdwenen was wil nog niet zeggen dat de gehele trend gekeerd is, dan zouden we binnen 10 jaar volgens jou logica weer aan ijs extend bij de gemiddeldes 85-2000 of zo moeten uitkomen. :D
Omdat 2007. Een mega smeltjaar waarna bijna geen MYI over was (Maslanik et al GRL, 2011). Een cherry pick inderdaad.

Over die foutieve registratie van FYI als MYI door satellieten: een erg technische en lange studie (Yufang et al, Remote Sensing, 2016) met als conclusie:
When the atmospheric temperature approaches the melting point, physical properties of snow on FYI change, triggering anomalous brightness temperatures and backscatters, which deviate from the typical values. These values from FYI become very similar to those from MYI. Deformation and roughening of the ice surface can have a similar effect. These radiometric observations lead to misidentification of FYI as MYI, resulting in erroneous high MYI concentration retrievals.
Dan krijg je in abnormaal warme winters als 2015-2016 en 2016-2017 onterrecht extra veel MYI, aldus de satellieten.

Het verloop en distributie van de leeftijd van het Arctisch ijs aldus NOAA:

[ Bericht 11% gewijzigd door cynicus op 15-04-2017 23:05:20 ]
Hail world records: the biggest, heaviest, and deadliest hail

09/05/2017 Event analysis

Imagine a melon-sized chunk of ice falling out of the sky? Punching a hole in your car windshield? Your roof? Breaking bone?

Hail is one of the biggest hazards with severe thunderstorms – while it is usually small, and relatively harmless, it may grow to tennis ball sized or even larger. It may cause severe damage, injuries and in extreme cases even death.

It forms as super cooled water droplets within a thunderstorm updraft begin freezing onto a condensation nucleus. The super cooled droplets are colder than 0 C, but still in liquid state. As they come into contact with the growing hailstone they freeze onto it, making it grow. The growing hailstone is kept in the air by the storm’s updraft until it grows too big and heavy for the upward wind to keep it aloft. The hailstone may make a single journey within the updraft, or it may make several journeys, each forming a new layer, producing a concentric onion-like structure.

Some hailstones form and grow by many smaller hailstones sticking and freezing together into a large hailstone – such form is called an agglomerate. The largest hailstones sometimes even form long icy horns or spines! The most severe hailstorms and largest hail is usually associated with supercell thunderstorms – it takes high to extreme instability, strong wind shear and dry mid levels for very large hail to form. But just how big and heavy? Read on.

A 20.3 cm (8.0 inch) hailstone was recorded in the intense hailstorm produced by the July 23, 2010 Vivian, South Dakota severe supercell. The hailstone was found by a Mr. Lee Scott and turned over to the U.S. National Weather Service for certification in Aberdeen, South Dakota. The hailstone had a circumference of 47.3 cm (18.625 inches) and a weight of 0.88 kg (1.9375 pounds)! It even produced an impact pit about 25 cm across on the ground.

There are other, unconfirmed instances of similarly sized hail reported in the past – Ponca City, Oklahoma is reported have been hit by up to 20-cm hail on April 17, 1935.

A 47.6 cm (18.75 inches) circumference hailstone was recorded on June 22, 2003 on a severe thunderstorm that hit Aurora, Nebraska. The hailstone was 17.8 cm (7.0 inches) in diameter, but no weight was officially recorded as the hailstone partially broke off as it hit a roof of a house. It is very noteworthy, that the hail that hit Hamilton County (including Aurora) produced impact pits on the ground up to 36 cm across!

HEAVIEST HAILSTONE EVER RECORDED: April 14, 1986, Gopalganj district, Bangladesh

The heaviest hailstone that has been authenticated by authorities fell during an intense severe hailstorm in Gopalganj district of Bangladesh on April 14, 1986. It weighted in at 1.0 kg (2.25 pounds)! The intense hailstorm killed 92 people. In Europe the record is held by an large, 0.97 kg hailstone that fell in Strasbourg, France on August 11, 1958 – unfortunately no dimensions were recorded.

BIGGEST HAIL ACCUMULATION ON THE GROUND EVER RECORDED: June 3, 1959, Seldon, A persistent, virtually stationary hailstorm hit Seldon, Kansas on June 3, 1959, producing a blanket of hail up to 45 cm thick over an area of 140 square kilometers.

DEADLIEST HAILSTORM: April 22, 1888, Moradabad & Beheri districts, India

The April 22, 1888, Moradabad & Beheri districts, India is the deadliest hailstorm in recorded modern history, with 246 fatailities.

SOME SEVERE HAILSTORMS – captured on video:

Zie link

Stay tuned, we will be following up on this article with hail records in Europe. More interesting links:

  zaterdag 17 juni 2017 @ 17:34:19 #203
94257 aloa
Steeds harder, steeds sneller
Hoe laag gaat het dit jaar worden? In september weten we het. Momenteel iets meer ijs dan 2012.

Wow, de toename in het smelten van Antarctisch zeeijs vorige jaar, niet veroorzaakt door AGW?

Sea ice area is an important indicator of climate change, and sea ice loss in the Arctic has been linked to increased greenhouse gas emissions. But because sea ice records go back only four decades – when the satellite era began – it’s difficult to attribute Antarctica’s sea ice loss last year to human-caused climate change, Turner said. Whaling records provide scientists with hints of Antarctica’s past sea ice extent, but it’s tough to compare that data to satellite records, he said.

“There’s no indication this is anything but just natural variability,” he said. “It highlights the fact that the climate of the Antarctic is incredibly variable.”
Great spirits have always found violent opposition from mediocrities
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