Ziet er altijd vaag uit ja, maar niet ongewoon. Ik was in Indonesie in een vulkanisch gebied en daar had je gewoon diepe gaten in de natuur (niks geen hekjes oid) waar zwaveldamp uit kwam. Als je te dichtbij kwam ging je direct over je nek. Maar soms liep er een weg langs en dan zag je idd dit op de plek waar de damp vaak neersloeg.quote:
Goed genoeg om 1 April 2014 te spotten op die pagina.quote:
quote:How to keep things hot at Yellowstone and Katla: Just add water
Two volcanoes that get the interwebs all hot and bothered have made the news in the last week. First, Katla in Iceland produced some glacial flooding (jökulhlaups) that followed some earthquakes. Second, over at everyone’s favorite caldera, Yellowstone, there has been a lot of buzz over roads melting due to heat from the volcano. Now, as odd as it might seem, these two events are connected by the same process: geothermal (and hydrothermal) activity. When it comes down to it, most volcanoes are sitting on big heat sources. One way to lose the heat is by erupting, but probably the most important way to lose the heat is by the circulation of water in the crust. This water help keep things hot by efficiently moving heat generated by the magma that might be 5-6 kilometers (or more) below the surface and bringing it up to the surface — all of this happening when there is no threat of an eruption.
When you examine the history of a volcano, you’ll quickly see it spends much of its existence not erupting. However, during those periods of quiet between eruptions, there is plenty going on beneath the volcano. The magma is cooling and releasing heat and fluids in the surrounding rocks, causing the development of a hydrothermal system above the cooling magma. This is usually the top 5 kilometers of crust above the magma, where cracks in the rocks can help hot fluids rise from the magma and cool fluids (like rainwater or snowmelt) percolate down into the crust and heat up. So, how hot does it get under a volcano? Well, by examining the exposed innards of extinct volcanoes, we can see how much alteration the rocks and minerals have experienced. This is an important step in understand how certain valuable ore deposits, like porphyry copper, form above bodies of magma under volcanoes.
Looking at these zones of hydrothermal alteration, it is clear that the subsurface temperatures get hot — upwards of 300-500°C even multiple kilometers above any cooling magma body. Now, that heat isn’t getting there by conduction alone. Rock isn’t a very good conductor, so heat won’t travel far. However, if you heat up water traveling through cracks in the rock, you can transport a lot of heat upwards. That’s because water has a high heat capacity – think about how the Gulf Stream brings warm water from the tropics to the North Atlantic to keep Europe warm. That is what allows all the alteration to occur and for hydrothermal systems to form. These hydrothermal systems are constantly changing based on the seasons (thanks to changing access to water percolating into the crust), seismicity that opens and closes cracks and yes, even magma moving. However, most of the time, the changes in the system are merely due to new routes these hot fluids take to reach the surface.
What are the manifestations of these hydrothermal fluids? You see some of them at most active volcanoes: steam vents (fumaroles), hot springs, geysers, mud pots. Each is a different way heat escapes the ground. Steam vents tend to be the hottest, releasing steam (with other volcanic gases) at temperatures of 300-500°C. Geysers are explosions of superheated water, so they will be ~100°C. Hot springs and mud pots tend to be much cooler, with temperatures usually 20-70°C, depending of the vigor of the spring or geyser.
Glacial flooding from underneath Mũrdalsjökull in Iceland, seen at Múlakvísl. Photo by the Icelandic Met Office.
Glacial flooding from underneath Mũrdalsjökull in Iceland, seen at Múlakvísl. Photo by the Icelandic Met Office.
So, even moving water through the crust can bring a lot of heat upwards and that is common at most volcanoes — as are changes in the hydrothermal system over time. So, what is happening at Katla and Yellowstone?First, at Katla, the hydrothermal system works underneath a large ice cap (Mũrdalsjökull). Especially during warmer months, more water can percolate into the crust, causing changes in the hydrothermal system (which, by itself, can generate earthquakes). If more heated water and steam is allowed to reach the surface, then more ice can melt and pond until it is catastrophically released as a flood. Reports from the Iceland Met Office support this idea – the waters are warm as they come out from under the glacier. However, unlike an eruption-driven event, the melting isn’t accompanied by a continuously increasing number of earthquakes that would betray magma moving. So, the most likely explanation for these floods is increasing melting due to changes in the hydrothermal (geothermal) system, not an eruption. These sorts of floods have happened before during this time of year at Katla, sometimes more dramatic than others.
Now, at Yellowstone, we have a different manifestation of the same thing. The news has splashed images of melting roads on Firehole Lake Drive in an area with intense hydrothermal activity. The usual suspects (e.g., the Yellowstone disaster groupies) want to say this is evidence that an eruption is in the works. Well, again, sorry to disappoint the lunatic fringe, but it isn’t. Instead, this is a sign that the hydrothermal system under Firehole Lake Drive has shifted some — maybe due to the constant seismicity that gently shakes Yellowstone, maybe due to the water table, maybe even due to the road itself — and now heat is coming up directly under the road. Now, asphalt like that can melt at temperatures as low at ~50-70°C, so well within the range of most hydrothermal features. Measures of the road surface by NPS workers are ~70°C, so we’re well within the range of temperatures needed to melt the road. Just move where that hot spring or fumarole is coming up and boom, you have heat under the road, melting it.
De commentaren gaan voornamelijk over god en dat het goed gaat komen met de geloofsgekkie'squote:Op vrijdag 8 augustus 2014 12:04 schreef TheRipper het volgende:
makkelijk vertaald uit de bron
dit bericht is van 3 augustus en de commentaren zijn beter dan het artikel zelf.
quote:Yellowstone Supervolcano Eruption Would Doom the United States
Melted roads, the strongest earthquake in more than 30 years, spiking gas emissions from hot springs, animals purportedly "fleeing" the park's boundaries — all those events must be signs that the supervolcano lying dormant beneath Yellowstone National Park is poised for the first eruption in 70,000 years, right?
Wrong. As the head of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jacob B. Lowenstern, told The Billings Gazette, there's no "abnormal" activity going on beneath Yellowstone.
"The probability of a large … eruption within the next few thousand years is exceedingly low," a USGS report concludes.
But say the supervolcano were to erupt today, what sort of impacts would the United States experience? Thanks to new research from the USGS we finally have some answers, and the findings are decidedly grim.
According to the report, a major eruption at Yellowstone's supervolcano would send a plume of ash with a volume roughly 850 times greater than that of the one observed during the eruption of Mount St. Helens into the atmosphere. Areas just outside ground zero of the supervolcano could see more than 3 feet of ash, which would kill crops, electronic communication and travel to and from the areas. Even New York City, more than 1,500 miles away, would see ash from the Yellowstone eruption, albeit in lesser amounts.
As Discovery notes, such a large quantity of ash could also cause global temperatures to plummet. Weather patterns could also shift in an order of magnitude far greater than that of the Tambora eruption of 1815, one of the most devastating volcanic eruptions in recorded history. As Slate notes, the eruption of Tambora brought drought, disease and an unending winter to much of the globe. On the East Coast of the United States, for instance, the eruption triggered major snowstorms as late as June.
However, the most significant finding from the study is that ash plumes from larger volcanic eruptions don't follow the same rules as eruptions of a lesser magnitude. Ash plumes from smaller eruptions don't shoot as high up into the atmosphere as ash from larger eruptions, meaning the ash gets caught up in the jet stream and carried off in a set direction along with it.
But an eruption of the magnitude of Yellowstone's would shoot ash miles above Earth, well into the stratosphere, avoiding the jet stream and creating an "umbrella" of ash that would blanket the United States in a widespread, but relatively even pattern, The Billings-Gazette notes.
“In essence, the eruption makes its own winds that can overcome the prevailing westerlies, which normally dominate weather patterns in the United States,” USGS scientist Larry Mastin told Raw Story. “This helps explain the distribution from large Yellowstone eruptions of the past, where considerable amounts of ash reached the West Coast.”
Ash deposits as thick as 6 feet were detected in the geological record in areas of the Midwest, the USGS reports, partial byproducts of the three most recent major eruptions of the Yellowstone supervolcano, which took place 640,000, 1.3 million and 2.1 million years ago.
quote:Yellowstone Volcano: 98 Earthquakes Revealed In Latest Report By USGS
In the latest update of the Yellowstone volcano by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), October registered 98 total earthquakes in the Yellowstone National Park region. This seismic activity shows 21 more earthquakes than those reported in September. Although there was more activity in October, the highest magnitude was lower than the one reported in September.
The volcano’s current alert level is “normal” and current aviation color code is “green.” This is indicates that no massive eruption of the supervolcano is imminent.
According to the USGS, their information comes the University of Utah Seismograph Stations and is responsible for the operation and analysis of the Yellowstone Seismic Network.
“During October 2014, the University of Utah Seismograph Stations, responsible for the operation and analysis of the Yellowstone Seismic Network, reports 98 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) region. The largest event was a small earthquake of magnitude 2.7 on October 29, at 3:55 PM MDT, located about 17.5 km (11 miles) south-southwest of West Thumb, YNP. This earthquake is part of a small swarm of 15 earthquakes that occurred over six hours.
“Yellowstone earthquake activity in October is at low background levels.”
As the Inquisitr reported for September, nearly half the earthquakes were registered for the Yellowstone volcano in September than there was in August. August had 207 and 71 were reported in September. The strongest earthquake that month was September 24 when it reached a magnitude of 3.2 about 9 miles south of Mammoth.; no earthquake swarms were reported in September.
Ground deformations were updated by the USGS as well in the October report.
“Ground deformation was also reported in north-central Yellowstone. The rate of subsidence is holding steady at about 5 centimeters a year.
“The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) provides long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake activity in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety.”
The National Park Service posted a notice on its website that Yellowstone volcano won’t erupt anytime soon despite rumors implying otherwise.
“Though another caldera-forming eruption is theoretically possible, it is very unlikely to occur in the next thousand or even 10,000 years.
“The most likely activity would be lava flows such as those that occurred after the last major eruption. Such a lava flow would ooze slowly over months and years, allowing plenty of time for park managers to evaluate the situation and protect people. No scientific evidence indicates such a lava flow will occur soon.”
quote:0.6 2015/10/14 06:09:01 44.756N 111.165W 10.0 11 km ( 7 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.7 2015/10/14 04:23:59 44.443N 110.976W 4.2 26 km (16 mi) SSE of West Yellowstone, MT
-0.2 2015/10/14 03:05:35 44.764N 111.135W 8.7 12 km ( 7 mi) N of West Yellowstone, MT
1.1 2015/10/13 23:49:14 44.779N 111.147W 13.3 13 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
1.1 2015/10/13 23:45:05 44.771N 111.142W 12.3 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.3 2015/10/13 23:29:23 44.766N 111.137W 9.1 12 km ( 7 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
-0.2 2015/10/13 23:23:12 44.771N 111.137W 8.7 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.1 2015/10/13 23:20:51 44.767N 111.144W 11.6 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
-0.3 2015/10/13 23:16:23 44.763N 111.210W 26.2 14 km ( 9 mi) NW of West Yellowstone, MT
1.4 2015/10/13 23:08:59 44.770N 111.138W 12.0 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
1.1 2015/10/13 23:05:02 44.770N 111.141W 12.1 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.8 2015/10/13 22:25:32 44.771N 111.141W 11.8 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.4 2015/10/13 22:17:59 44.705N 111.002W 7.9 9 km ( 6 mi) ENE of West Yellowstone, MT
0.8 2015/10/13 22:01:23 44.770N 111.144W 11.4 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.1 2015/10/13 21:51:31 44.764N 111.142W 7.8 12 km ( 7 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.1 2015/10/13 21:45:16 44.769N 111.144W 11.1 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.5 2015/10/13 21:44:06 44.773N 111.145W 11.9 13 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.7 2015/10/13 21:41:42 44.766N 111.141W 8.7 12 km ( 7 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.6 2015/10/13 21:38:33 44.769N 111.141W 9.3 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.9 2015/10/13 21:35:56 44.769N 111.142W 11.4 12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
1.0 2015/10/13 21:32:26 44.772N 111.142W 11.7 13 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.6 2015/10/13 21:16:42 44.771N 111.147W 11.9 13 km ( 8 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
2.1 2015/10/13 21:10:38 44.783N 111.151W 13.9 14 km ( 9 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
0.8 2015/10/13 07:34:02 44.444N 110.981W 4.5 26 km (16 mi) SSE of West Yellowstone, MT
2.4 2015/10/13 06:23:07 44.450N 111.006W 8.0 25 km (15 mi) SSE of West Yellowstone, MT
1.1 2015/10/13 05:46:57 44.448N 111.002W 8.2 25 km (16 mi) SSE of West Yellowstone, MT
1.9 2015/10/13 05:29:49 44.454N 111.008W 16.0 24 km (15 mi) SSE of West Yellowstone, MT
0.8 2015/10/13 05:26:43 44.467N 110.959W 4.9 25 km (15 mi) SSE of West Yellowstone, MT
1.5 2015/10/13 01:42:17 44.750N 111.159W 9.3 11 km ( 7 mi) NNW of West Yellowstone, MT
1.0 2015/10/09 07:43:05 44.698N 110.995W 7.4 10 km ( 6 mi) ENE of West Yellowstone, MT
Een paar gigaton volgens mij. Maar het grote probleem gaat niet de energie zijn maar de enorme hoeveelheid as en stof die vrijkomt (meer dan 1.000 km3). Genoeg om hele VS onder een laag as van enkele centimeters te bedelven en een kleine ijstijd op Aarde te veroorzaken.quote: